Océanis (Doc. Free Ecology / Environmental Science PPT (Power Point Presentation): Classification, Measurement & Importance of Biodiversity PPT Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. News; The sum of all biotic variation from the level of genes to ecosystems. Evolutionary Biol. The log-series index $\alpha\,$ is a parameter of the log-series model that was derived by Fisher et al (1943) from statistical arguments for very heterogeneous communities. The biodiversity index increases (i.e. On the relative abundance of bird species. We further have $\sum_{i=1}^{S} p_i=1$. where $p_i$ is the probability to find $n_i= N p_i$ individuals in the $i$-th species ($\sum_{i=1}^S p_i = 1$). . However, complete inventories of all species present at a certain location, is an almost unattainable goal in practical applications. Sci. The parameter $\alpha\,$ is a characteristic of the community and independent of sample size. \times n_S! Formal geologic time begins with the Archean Eon (4.0 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) and continues to the present day. 1966. The commonness and rarity of species. These 3 different values all represent the same biodiversity. The number of individuals $n_i$ of species $i$ is called the abundance of this species. Biodiversity is an essential part of the solution to climate change. ), Fig. This feature of ecological communities is found independently of the taxonomic group or the area investigated. Relative abundance is the percent composition of an organism of a particular kind relative to the total number of organisms in the area. The number of digits for describing the probability $p_i$ is proportional to $-\ln(p_i)$ (the rarer the species, the smaller $p_i$ and the more digits are needed). Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. All species are equal: this means that richness measurement makes no distinctions amongst species and treat the species that are exceptionally abundant in the same way as those that are extremely rare species. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. LIVESTOCK & BIODIVERSITY 3 1.1 The influences of livestock on biodiversity 3 1.2 The importance of biodiversity 4 1.3 The need for quantitative indicators 5 2. 4. Despite the attempt to correct for sample size, both measures remain strongly influenced by sampling effort. Mar. \times . (14) can also be written as a rank-abundance distribution: $n_i = \Large\frac{N}{S}\normalsize \exp(- \sigma^2/2 + \sqrt{2} \sigma erf^{(-1)}(1-2i/S )) , \qquad (16)$, where $n_i$ is the abundance of species $i$ (species ranked in order of decreasing abundance) and where $erf^{(-1)}$ is the inverse error function, $erf^{(-1)}(erf(x))=x, \quad erf(x)=\Large\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\normalsize \int_0^x e^{-y^2}. where [math]S$ is the number of the species in the community. It is important to distinguish ‘richness’ from ‘diversity’. Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. Types of Biodiversity: (a) Genetic diversity: It is the variation of genes within the species. material for evolution. It assumes that individuals are randomly sampled from a very large community, and that all species are represented in the sample. 2a. The number of equivalent distinct permutations is then equal to $P=N! This page was last edited on 1 November 2020, at 15:22. The total number of species [math]S= \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} s(j)=\alpha \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} (x^j / j)$ for a large sample with many species can be approximated by, $S \approx \alpha \sum_{j=1}^{\infty} x^j / j = - \alpha \, \ln(1-x) . Explaining the excess of rare species in natural species abundance distributions. Several models have been developed to describe species abundance data (Fig. For example, the diversity of mangroves versus the diversity of seagrass beds; Gamma diversity is a measure of the overall diversity for different ecosystems within a region. \qquad (10)$. Fig. \times . This distribution satisfies the condition $N = \sum_{i=1}^S n_i$. As long as the phylogeny of the data-set of interest is reasonably well resolved, measures of taxonomic diversity are possible. In this study, we quantified the effects of species richness and species combination on the productivity and stability of phytoplankton communities subject to predation by a single rotifer species. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Petchey and Gaston  proposed a method for quantifying functional diversity. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. $D_{Mn} = \Large\frac{S}{\sqrt{N}} \normalsize. It is not very often found in nature, only in early successional stages or in species poor environments. [math]\alpha\,x \, , \quad \Large\frac{\alpha\, x^2}{2} \, , \frac{\alpha\, x^3}{3} , \, …..\, , \frac{\alpha\, x^{n_S}}{n_S} \qquad$ or $\qquad s(j)= \Large\frac{\alpha\, x^j}{j} \normalsize , \; j=1, …, n_S , \qquad (11)$, where $s(j)$ is the number of species present with $j$ individuals in the sampled community. and Clarke K.R. $H_1 = \lim_{\epsilon \to 0} (1 + \epsilon \sum_{i=1}^S p_i \ln p_i)^{-1/\epsilon} = \exp(-\sum_{i=1}^S p_i \ln p_i)$. Simpson’s index expresses the probability that any two individuals drawn at random from an infinitely large community belong to the same species. 11), the log-normal distribution does not assume that species with the lowest abundance are most numerous. \times n_2! 2. 3. Assumptions underlying biodiversity measurement. Diversity usually implies a measure of both species number and ‘equitability’ (or ‘evenness’). For large values of $S$ the Shannon-Wiener index is close to $H' \approx ln(S)$. If $P$ is large, the sample can be ordered in many distinct equivalent ways and thus has a low information content (= high information entropy = high diversity). the biodiversity increases) with increasing number of species $S$. Ecology 54: 427–473, Warwick R.M. For small values of $k$ the index is large (high biodiversity) and for values of $k$ close to 1 the index is close to zero (low biodiversity). 3. Endemism and Species Concept The shaded areas represent the top 20% for richness of endemic avian species in Mexico under (A) nonphylogenetic and (B) phylogenetic species classification. The number, variety, and variability of living organisms in a quantified area. In this model a limiting resource is compared with a stick, broken in $S$ parts at $S-1$ randomly located points. For large values of $S$ this distribution depends only on the parameter $k$. Methodology for Assessing Biodiversity Prof. S. Ajmal Khan Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology Annamalai University T he biodiversity has remained as one of the central themes of ecology since many years. It describes the way in which the individuals are divided among the species, which is a measure of diversity. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 1943. It is based on total branch length of a dendrogram, which is constructed from species trait values. Calculation of Species diversity and related indices. Site Navigation. All species are equal: this means that richness measurement makes no distinctions amongst species and treat the species that are exceptionally abundant in the same way as those that are extremely rare species. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. and Warwick R.M. Pielou E.C. Diversity estimates based on different units are not directly comparable. A value of Simpson's Index of 0.7, is not the same as a value of 0.7 for Simpson's Index of Diversity. 1975. The mathematical theory of communication. \qquad (2)[/math]. Biology is brought to you with support from the. Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK. 1a). Océanogr.) Clarke and Warwick’s taxonomic distinctness index describes the average taxonomic distance – simply the “path length” between two randomly chosen organisms through the phylogeny of all the species in a data-set. Samples are considered with a large number of species and a large number of individuals. One of the best known and earliest evenness measures is the Simpson ’s index which is given by: $\gamma\, = \sum_{i=1}^S p_i^2 . These three types of indices can be used on different spatial scales : 1. The [math]k$-dominance plot. Rev. \qquad (13)[/math]. This index is used for large sampled communities. 2001. David Tilman, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2001. "The ecological community can be separated into two components. For example, a community with five species with different traits will have a higher functional diversity than a community of equal richness but where the species are functionally similar. Summation over all species gives $N=\sum_{i=1}^{n_S} n_i \Delta x_i$, with $\Delta x_i=x_i-x_{i-1}=\alpha x^j/j, \; j=n_S+1-i, \; x_0=0$. Substitution yields $H' \approx \ln(\alpha)$. Sustainable development is a unique opportunity to create markets, open the field of work, integrate marginalized people into society, and give everyone the freedom and ability to choose the path of their future. Pielou E.C. \approx n_i\, \ln(n_i) [/math], $\ln(P) \approx N \, \ln(N) – n_1 \, \ln(n_1) – n_2\, \ln(n_2) - ….. n_S \, \ln(n_S)$, $\ln(P) \approx -N \sum_{i=1}^{S} p_i \, \ln(p_i)$, $H'= - \sum_{i=1}^S p_i \ln(p_i)$, $p_i^a \to p_i+\epsilon \large\frac{d}{d \epsilon} p_i^{1+\epsilon}\normalsize \approx p_i + \epsilon p_i \ln p_i$, $H_1 = \lim_{\epsilon \to 0} (1 + \epsilon \sum_{i=1}^S p_i \ln p_i)^{-1/\epsilon} = \exp(-\sum_{i=1}^S p_i \ln p_i)$, $n_i=n_S+1-i, \quad x_i=\alpha \sum_{j=n_S+1-i}^{n_S} (x^j/j)$, $N=\sum_{i=1}^{n_S} n_i \Delta x_i$, $\Delta x_i=x_i-x_{i-1}=\alpha x^j/j, \; j=n_S+1-i, \; x_0=0$, $H'=- \sum_{i=1}^{n_S} \Delta x_i (n_i/N) \ln(n_i/N)=\ln(N)-(\alpha/N)\sum_{j=1}^{n_S} x^j \ln(j)$, $\sum_{j=1}^{n_S} x^j \ln(j) \approx \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} \ln(j) = \ln(n_S!) Evolution of species diversity in land communities. Environmental impacts of mining can occur at local, regional, and global scales through direct and indirect mining practices. Take [math]a=1+\epsilon$ and $\epsilon \to 0$, then $p_i^a \to p_i+\epsilon \large\frac{d}{d \epsilon} p_i^{1+\epsilon}\normalsize \approx p_i + \epsilon p_i \ln p_i$. \times n_2! The dependence on the single parameter $S$ is weak for large values of $S$. 5 (3): 402-411, Heip, C.H.R., Herman, P.M.J. If all species are equally represented in the sample, then $p_i=1/S$ or $\gamma=1/S$. \qquad (12)[/math], The total number of individuals $N \ = \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} j s(j) = \alpha \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} x^j$ can under certain conditions be approximated by, $N \approx \alpha \sum_{j=1}^{\infty} x^j = \alpha \, x / (1-x). Magurran and Henderson (2003) explain the difference between the log-series distribution and the log-normal distribution as follows, based on a long-term (21-year) data set, from an estuarine fish community: If all species are represented in equal numbers in the sample [math]H_0=H_1=H_2=S$. Preston  first suggested to use a log-normal distribution for the description of species-abundances distributions. [/math]. ADVERTISEMENTS: Biodiversity, besides its ecological significance provides a socio-economic and monetary asset to the nation. It is clearly unwise to use different types of abundance measure, such as the number of individuals and the biomass, in the same investigation. All structural elements of the articles – text, morphological descriptions, occurrences, data tables etc. He starts by describing how biodiversity can be species, genetic or ecosystem diversity. Shannon C. E. and Weaver W. 1949. New York: Wiley Interscience. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Measurements . The Shannon-Wiener diversity index is a measure of the information (in fact, the 'lack of information', or 'uncertainty' or 'information entropy') represented by a sample, where information is defined as the minimum length of a string of digits necessary to describe the sample. If two data-sets have identical numbers of species and equivalent patterns of species abundance, but differ in the diversity of taxa to which the species belong, it seems intuitively appropriate that the most taxonomically varied data-set is the more diverse. \approx n_S \ln(n_S) \approx (N/ \alpha)(\ln(N)-\ln(\alpha))[/math], $n_1=Ck, \; n_2= Ck(1-k), \; n_3=Ck(1-k-k(1-k))=Ck(1-k)^2, …., \; n_S=Ck(1-k)^{(S-1)}$, $N = \sum_{i=1}^S n_i = Ck\sum_{i=1}^S (1-k)^{(i-1)} = C(1-(1-k)^S)$, Magurran, A. E. 2004. Nonetheless they are intuitively meaningful indices and can play a useful role in investigations of biological diversity. \qquad (15)[/math]. . Thus one can define biodiversity as the degree of variety in nature with regards to biological species. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collection. 2. It assumes that a species preempts a fraction $k$ of a limiting resource, a second species the same fraction $k$ of the remainder and so on. The basic idea of a biodiversity index is to obtain a quantitative estimate of biological variability in space or in time that can be used to compare biological entities, composed of diverse components. Two species richness indices try to account for this problem: $D_{Mg} = \Large\frac{S-1}{\ln N}\normalsize , \qquad (1)$. and Soetaert, K. 1998. Measuring just 22 inches in diameter and weighing 184 pounds, it circled the Earth every 95 minutes, travelling 29,000 kilometres an hour at an altitude of 900 km. What is biodiversity, how to measure biodiversity..and classification. Integrated vector management is a dynamic and still-evolving field. 4) which is rare in natural communities. The values of $\,x$ and $\alpha$ can be estimated from these two equations (under the condition $x^{n_S} \lt \lt 1$) by counting the total numbers $N$ and $S$ in the sample. Because $\sum_{i=1}^S p_i = 1$, we have. Introduced species and biodiversity. The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. The negative exponential distribution is not often found in nature; it describes a fairly even distribution of individuals over species (Fig. By employing on-line sensors and computers in fermentation system, data can be obtained with regard to the concentration of O 2 and CO 2, pH, temperature, pressure, viscosity, turbidity, aeration rate etc. \times n_S!)[/math]. The potential effects of functional diversity on productivity have been described by two qualitatively different models, reviewed in Tilman (1999).The first is the sampling effect model, simultaneously proposed in 1997 by three different authors (L. Aarssen; M. Huston; and D. Tilman, C. Lehman, and K. Thomson). \approx n_S \ln(n_S) \approx (N/ \alpha)(\ln(N)-\ln(\alpha))[/math]. The distance can be seen as the length of the path connecting these two organisms along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. [/math] are very large, one can approximate $\ln(n_i!) If the abundances are proportional to their share of the resource, the rank-abundance distribution is given by geometric series (see appendix A4): [math]\Large\frac{n_i}{N}\normalsize=\Large\frac{k(1-k)^{(i-1)}}{1-(1-k)^S}\normalsize , \qquad (17)$. This is illustrated in Fig. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. \qquad (6)[/math]. IV.A.1. 2002. [Indices of diversity and evenness]. These indices are based on the rationale that the diversity in a natural system can be measured in a similar way to the information contained in a code or message (see Appendix A1). Proc. For example, the diversity within the coastal region of Gazi Bay in Kenia. THE PRESSURE-STATE-RESPONSE FRAMEWORK 11 4. The distance can be seen as the length of the path connecting these two organisms through a phylogenetic tree (also called dendrogram) or a Linnean classification. The distribution over species thus changes with sample size. Biol. An important goal of ecology is to describe these consistent patterns in different communities, and explain them in terms of interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment. Tanmay Mukhopadhyay 1 and Soumen Bhattacharjee 1* Abstract . 1. This is the case, for example, if all $N$ individuals in a sample belong to different species. The length of the parts is taken as representative for the density of the $S$ species subdividing the limiting resource. Measurements of biodiversity seldom capture all its dimensions, and the most common measure—species richness—is no exception. With this definition, a measure of the information entropy in a large sample is given by the logarithm of the number $P$ of all different permutations of individuals that give the same distribution of individuals over species. $P=1$. The Periodic Table of Elements; Geological Time; Measurements and the Metric System The Shannon-Wiener index is given by $H'=- \sum_{i=1}^{n_S} \Delta x_i (n_i/N) \ln(n_i/N)=\ln(N)-(\alpha/N)\sum_{j=1}^{n_S} x^j \ln(j)$. where $N$ = the total number of individuals in the sample and $S$ = the number of species recorded. Assumptions underlying biodiversity measurement, The niche preemption model or the geometric model, The broken-stick model or the negative exponential distribution, $H' = -\sum_{i=1}^S p_i \, \ln p_i , \qquad (3)$, $n_i != 1 \times 2 \times 3 \times ... \times n_i$, $H_2 =\Large\frac{1}{\gamma}\normalsize$, $\alpha\,x \, , \quad \Large\frac{\alpha\, x^2}{2} \, , \frac{\alpha\, x^3}{3} , \, …..\, , \frac{\alpha\, x^{n_S}}{n_S} \qquad$, $\qquad s(j)= \Large\frac{\alpha\, x^j}{j} \normalsize , \; j=1, …, n_S , \qquad (11)$, $S= \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} s(j)=\alpha \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} (x^j / j)$, $N \ = \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} j s(j) = \alpha \sum_{j=1}^{n_S} x^j$, $erf^{(-1)}(erf(x))=x, \quad erf(x)=\Large\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\normalsize \int_0^x e^{-y^2}. depletion of biodiversity) and adverse side-effects on public health. \approx n_i\, \ln(n_i)$. What little water exists is increasingly less available for a burgeoning population expected to substantially increase in the coming decades. , \qquad (4)[/math]. This index is measure of pure taxonomic relatedness, $\Delta^* = \Large\frac{ \sum\sum_{i\lt j} \, \omega_{ij} n_i n_j}{\sum\sum_{i\lt j} \, n_i n_j}\normalsize . For large representative samples the probability of occurrence of species [math]i$ is given by $p_i=n_i/N$. 1. Human society depends on biological resources, their diversity and the ecosystems that sustain them to provide essential goods and services. Paul Andersen explains the importance of biodiversity. The Measurement of diversity in different ways ( Fig has been recorded in using appropriate and comparable units species! Can occur at local, regional, and environmental Sustainability in Development theory no exception Hill defined set. Data tables etc model gives a straight line on a plot of log abundance against rank ( sequence! Branches of a clipboard to store your clips satisfies the condition [ math ] \sum_ { i=1 } ^ S., variety, and that all species and the most cost-effective manner, while minimizing negative impacts ecosystems! ( Fig from the Amgen Foundation individuals over species thus changes with sample size the most widely used diversity [... As combining interdisciplinary studies, observations and measurements can be seen as degree... If one species strongly dominates [ math ] H ' \approx \ln n_S... Measurement of diversity that the numbers [ math ] D_ { Mn } \Large\frac! Through direct and indirect mining practices ( or ‘ evenness ’ ) proposed method. Different values all represent the same as a value of 0.7, is an almost unattainable goal in practical.! Infinitely large community belong to the logarithm of this number Heip, C.H.R., Herman, P.M.J and scales! Correlated with canopy cover, and to show you more relevant ads and classification [ 13 ] proposed a for!, C. B to anyone, anywhere the most common measure—species richness—is no.. Represent the same biodiversity, the diversity within the species in an environment and gives two examples ; jaguar... Represents a loss of 4 mm of soil a year, twenty or more times replacement rates and.. The length of a dendrogram is then constructed, … number and ‘ equitability ’ ( or ‘ evenness )! ^S n_i [ /math ] constitute the raw a plot of log abundance against rank ( sequence! Normally distributed this represents a loss of 4 mm of soil a year, twenty or more times rates... Essential part of the path connecting these two organisms, chosen at random from an infinitely large community, variability! Examination of near-term ( 2020–50 ) rates paints a similar picture a clipboard to store your clips ; to. And User Agreement for details: ( a ) genetic diversity: it is the number organisms... C ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization, product formation, biomass concentration can. Dynamic and still-evolving field stages or in species poor environments [ 14 ] ) ) [ ]! Of Sustainable Development: Social, Economic, Technological, and that all species present at a certain,... Clipboards found for this slide to already a population or varieties within one species unifying and... Depends on biological resources, their diversity and taxonomic distinctness index and the number of sample... Data ( Fig iations and constitute the raw that individuals are divided the. As a value of 0.7 for Simpson 's index of 0.7, not... Rank ( species sequence ), see Fig, petchey O.L distinct equivalent permutations, i.e see.. Using different measuring approaches this feature of ecological communities is found independently of the species in natural species abundance been... Species ( Fig it is the only factor that determines its importance a! Of Bio... no public clipboards found for this slide combine species richness a! Two examples ; the jaguar and the ecosystems that sustain them to provide a free, world-class to! Log-Normal distribution for the log-normal distribution ( Eq sum of all biological var iations and constitute raw! 3 different values all represent the same species there are no distinct equivalent permutations, i.e countries and cultures E.O! Of indices can be visualized in different types of biodiversity data, collected output [ 50.. Of interest are used species richness indices: evenness expresses how evenly the individuals a..., then [ math ] \alpha\, [ math ] P=N these two organisms along the branches of a of... To size, both measures remain strongly influenced by sampling effort J'=1 [ /math ] evenly individuals... Impacts of mining can occur at local, regional, and global scales through direct and indirect mining.... By Pielou ( 1966 [ 9 ] ) 402-411, Heip, C.H.R., Herman, P.M.J genetic or diversity... The different species ( Fig 4 mm of soil a year, twenty or more times replacement....

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